also initializes in the same way where it takes from a true random source when available through os.urandom(). After initializing, it produces deterministic results until the seed is set. This replaces urandom! Fixes #139.
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This is an open source derivative of MicroPython for use on educational development boards designed and sold by Adafruit.
As a MicroPython derivative, this implements Python 3.x on microcontrollers such as the SAMD21 and ESP8266.
This project is in beta. Most APIs should be stable going forward.
Designed for CircuitPython
- Adafruit Feather HUZZAH
- Adafruit Feather M0 Basic
- Adafruit Feather M0 Bluefruit LE (uses M0 Basic binaries)
- Adafruit Feather M0 Adalogger (MicroSD card not supported yet.)
- Arduino Zero
Official binaries are available through the latest GitHub releases. Continuous (one per commit) builds are available here which includes experimental hardware support.
Guides and videos are available through the Adafruit Learning System under the CircuitPython category and MicroPython category. An API reference is also available on Read the Docs.
See CONTRIBUTING.md for full guidelines but please be aware that by contributing to this project you are agreeing to the Code of Conduct. Contributors who follow the Code of Conduct are welcome to submit pull requests and they will be promptly reviewed by project admins. Please join the Gitter chat too.
Differences from MicroPython
- Port for Atmel SAMD21 (Commonly known as M0 in product names.)
machineAPI on Atmel SAMD21 port.
- Only supports Atmel SAMD21 and ESP8266 ports.
- The order that files are run and the state thats shared between them. The goal is to clarify the role of each file and make them independent from each other.
settings.py) runs only once on start up before USB is initialized. This lays the ground work for configuring USB at startup rather than it being fixed. Since serial is not available, output is written to boot_out.txt.
main.py) is run after every reload until it finishes or is interrupted. After its done the vm and hardware is reinitialized. This means you cannot read state from code.py in the REPL anymore. This was changed to reduce confusion about pins and memory being in use.
- After code.py the REPL can be entered by pressing any key. It no longer shares state with code.py so its a fresh vm.
- Autoreload state will be maintained across reload.
- Adds a safe mode that does not run user code after a hard crash or brown out. The hope is that this will make it easier to fix code that causes nasty crashes by making it available through mass storage after the crash. A reset (the button) is needed after its fixed to get back into normal mode.
- Unified hardware APIs:
bitbangio(Only available on atmel-samd21 and ESP8266 currently.)
- Tracks MicroPython's releases (not master).
- No module aliasing. (
utimeare not available as
- Modules with a CPython counterpart, such as
time, are strict subsets of their CPython version. Therefore, code from CircuitPython is runnable on CPython but not necessarily the reverse.
- tick count is available as
osonly available as
- atmel-samd21 features
- RGB status LED
- Auto-reload after file write over mass storage. (Disable with
- Wait state after boot and main run, before REPL.
- Main is one of these:
- Boot is one of these:
Here is an overview of the top-level directories.
The core code of MicroPython is shared amongst ports including CircuitPython:
docsHigh level user documentation in Sphinx reStructuredText format.
driversExternal device drivers written in Python.
examplesA few example Python scripts.
extmodShared C code used in multiple ports' modules.
libShared core C code including externally developed libraries such as FATFS.
logoThe MicroPython logo.
mpy-crossA cross compiler that converts Python files to byte code prior to being run in MicroPython. Useful for reducing library size.
pyCore Python implementation, including compiler, runtime, and core library.
shared-bindingsShared definition of Python modules, their docs and backing C APIs. Ports must implement the C API to support the corresponding module.
shared-moduleShared implementation of Python modules that may be based on
testsTest framework and test scripts.
toolsVarious tools, including the pyboard.py module.
Ports include the code unique to a microcontroller line and also variations based on the board.
atmel-samdSupport for SAMD21 based boards such as Arduino Zero, Adafruit Feather M0 Basic, and Adafruit Feather M0 Bluefruit LE.
bare-armA bare minimum version of MicroPython for ARM MCUs.
cc3200Support for boards based CC3200 from TI such as the WiPy 1.0.
esp8266Support for boards based on ESP8266 WiFi modules such as the Adafruit Feather HUZZAH.
minimalA minimal MicroPython port. Start with this if you want to port MicroPython to another microcontroller.
pic16bitSupport for 16-bit PIC microcontrollers.
qemu-armSupport for ARM emulation through QEMU.
stmhalSupport for boards based on STM32 microcontrollers including the MicroPython flagship PyBoard.
teensySupport for the Teensy line of boards such as the Teensy 3.1.
unixSupport for UNIX.
windowsSupport for Windows.
zephyrSupport for Zephyr, a real-time operating system by the Linux Foundation.
CircuitPython only maintains the
esp8266 ports. The rest are here to maintain compatibility with the MicroPython parent project.