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Git commit conventions

Each commit message should start with a directory or full file path prefix, so it was clear which part of codebase a commit affects. If a change affects one file, it's better to use path to a file. If it affects few files in a subdirectory, using subdirectory as a prefix is ok. For longish paths, it's acceptable to drop intermediate components, which still should provide good context of a change. It's also ok to drop file extensions.

Besides prefix, first line of a commit message should describe a change clearly and to the point, and be a grammatical sentence with final full stop. First line should fit within 78 characters. Examples of good first line of commit messages:

py/objstr: Add splitlines() method.
py: Rename FOO to BAR.
docs/machine: Fix typo in reset() description.
ports: Switch to use lib/foo instead of duplicated code.

After the first line, add an empty line and in following lines describe a change in a detail, if needed. Any change beyond 5 lines would likely require such detailed description.

To get good practical examples of good commits and their messages, browse thry the git log of the project.

Python code conventions

Python code follows PEP 8.

Naming conventions:

  • Module names are short and all lowercase; eg pyb, stm.
  • Class names are CamelCase, with abreviations all uppercase; eg I2C, not I2c.
  • Function and method names are all lowercase with words separated by a single underscore as necessary to improve readability; eg mem_read.
  • Constants are all uppercase with words separated by a single underscore; eg GPIO_IDR.

C code conventions

When writing new C code, please adhere to the following conventions.

White space:

  • Expand tabs to 4 spaces.
  • Don't leave trailing whitespace at the end of a line.
  • For control blocks (if, for, while), put 1 space between the keyword and the opening parenthesis.
  • Put 1 space after a comma, and 1 space around operators.


  • Use braces for all blocks, even no-line and single-line pieces of code.
  • Put opening braces on the end of the line it belongs to, not on a new line.
  • For else-statements, put the else on the same line as the previous closing brace.

Header files:

  • Header files should be protected from multiple inclusion with #if directives. See an existing header for naming convention.


  • Use underscore_case, not camelCase for all names.
  • Use CAPS_WITH_UNDERSCORE for enums and macros.
  • When defining a type use underscore_case and put '_t' after it.

Integer types: MicroPython runs on 16, 32, and 64 bit machines, so it's important to use the correctly-sized (and signed) integer types. The general guidelines are:

  • For most cases use mp_int_t for signed and mp_uint_t for unsigned integer values. These are guaranteed to be machine-word sized and therefore big enough to hold the value from a MicroPython small-int object.
  • Use size_t for things that count bytes / sizes of objects.
  • You can use int/uint, but remember that they may be 16-bits wide.
  • If in doubt, use mp_int_t/mp_uint_t.


  • Be concise and only write comments for things that are not obvious.
  • Use // prefix, NOT /* ... */. No extra fluff.

Memory allocation:

  • Use m_new, m_renew, m_del (and friends) to allocate and free heap memory. These macros are defined in py/misc.h.


Braces, spaces, names and comments:

#define TO_ADD (123)

// This function will always recurse indefinitely and is only used to show
// coding style
int foo_function(int x, int some_value) {
    if (x < some_value) {
        foo(some_value, x);
    } else {
        foo(x + TO_ADD, some_value - 1);

    for (int my_counter = 0; my_counter < x; my_counter++) {

Type declarations:

typedef struct _my_struct_t {
    int member;
    void *data;
} my_struct_t;